Draft Terms

Terms of the Treaty Exchanged by Ontario and Canada Before Meeting the Indians

According to the terms the annuity to be granted would be $4.00 per person, as well as a Treaty signing bonus of $4.00. The reserves would be chosen by the Indians, and the government would provide day schools. The Federal Government would pay for the cost of making the Treaty, and for the cost of the day schools. But, because Ontario would benefit from the land once the Treaty was made, it should pay for the annuities.

On June 2 1904, having not heard from Ontario, the Department of Indian Affairs pressured the Ontario Government for its approval of the draft terms of Treaty No. 9. Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, Mr. Frank Pedley, emphasized the need for a Treaty with the Nishnawbe Aski in a letter to Ontario’s Assistant Commissioner of Crown Lands, Mr. Aubrey White, stating that it was in the best interests of the Dominion and the Province of Ontario that the Treaty be concluded.

Ontario’s senior lawyer, Mr. Amelius Irving, drafted Ontario’s reply, which was eventually signed by Aubrey White and sent to Mr. Pedley in Indian Affairs.

Irving cautioned his Minister that the subject of which government was bound to pay annuities promised by Treaty was still not decided by the Courts.

Irving also argued that:

  • the reserves should be approved by Ontario, and that the Province should own the minerals.
  • that water powers capable of producing electricity should not be included in any new reserves promised in the Treaty.

Author: Janet Armstrong, PhD